AFFH ART//JANNA MACH
At the beginning of the summer, a wave of violence in the neighborhood of Roxbury appeared, withthree fatal shootings and one fatal stabbing in the first few weeks of July alone. When we see violence in our community, it is important to think about the causes, impacts and potential solutions for our neighborhood. 
At the start of 2016, major crime in Boston fell to a 10-year low, the Boston Globe reported. However, Universal Hub reported 26 recorded murders in 2017 through the end of July, 7 of those occurring in Roxbury. After an all-time low, is the homicide rate heading back up? How can this happen in Beantown?
Even though poverty is a huge cause of crime, gentrification is playing a role, too. Boston is currently one of the most gentrified cities in the country. Gentrification is the process of renovating and improving a neighborhood due to influx of upper-middle class affluence. Many of Boston’s projects, housing areas and ghettos are slowly changing as residents are displaced, causing violence to spill over into other neighborhoods. 
In Roxbury, gentrification caused in part by encroachment of Northeastern University is forcing long-time residents out and shifting crime patterns in and around the neighborhood. With over 20,000 residents, Roxbury is the third poorest neighbourhood in Boston, with the poverty level at 34.92%. 
How do residents feel about what’s going on in their neighborhood? One local Roxbury teen, who would like to remain anonymous, has been in the streets since he was 13, and his dad was locked behind bars when he was young. “I lived with my mom for my whole life,” he said. “The reason I started hustling and really being in this was to support my moms. I was tired of having nothing.” 
This source thinks that these crimes are happening because of all the poverty. He claims that people have to eat and they’re going to do what they have to do. He thinks Roxbury is the main place for this violence because of all of its gangs.
This is the mind of a person who’s actually going through this. Poverty, violence and murder—it’s all a cycle that Roxbury residents have been dealing with for decades. Although poverty plays a huge role in the violence, gentrification is making it worse. 
People who used to live in Roxbury are being priced out and moving to neighboring cities like Lynn and Brockton, where rent is cheaper. With these people getting pushed out of their original residence, the chance of crime overflowing into these neighborhoods rises. 
15-year-old Naysha Feliz from Brockton thinks the crime going on in Roxbury is getting out of hand.“It’s making the streets unsafe for not just adults, but for kids,” she claims. Feliz feels her neighborhood is already bad as it is, and Boston’s gentrification will cause crime in Brockton to skyrocket. 
As an honor roll student, Feliz believes that for crime to just appear from a city away and affect her everyday life is unacceptable. Many of these people have dreams and goals they want to achieve, and crime is a major setback.
“I want the community of Roxbury to turn into somewhere people don’t have to be worried to walk out the house, where they can  walk outside unharmed,” she says.
Feliz feels as if there aren’t enough opportunities for kids in their small neighborhood. She thinks too many of the kids are getting involved in violence at a young age, and there needs to be a way out for them. 
Many people talk about these problems, but not enough talk about what we need to do to find the solution. We need to make our city a better place, and it all starts in the community.
Thaddeus Miles, Director of Public Safety at MassHousing, grew up in an all-black community in Virginia. To reduce crime in our communities, he believes we should focus on families and their situations. “We spend a great deal of resources on the kids, but not enough on the family unit,” he said. 
Miles believes Boston’s crime can truly stop and the city can find peace. “We, as people of color in urban neighborhoods, need to address the many positive aspects of our community along with its various challenges,” he said. 
Although crime in our neighborhoods is all too visible, I know we, the people, can make this all end and bring peace to our urban neighborhoods.



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AFH PHOTO//MARIANA MELARA
Dorchester has an incredibly bad reputation for crime and violence in its borders. The WCVB reported that in the first half of 2017, there were 151 shootings in Boston. Among those, 20 of Boston's 23 homicides have taken place in just three neighborhoods — Roxbury, Dorchester and Mattapan, according to the Boston Globe. Although crime in Boston is at a two-decade low, the numbers are still higher than anyone would like to feel safe in their neighborhood, let alone their own home. 
Crime affects different people in a variety of different ways. Dorchester locals, from long-time residents to teenagers, shared their experiences with crime and violence in Dorchester’s borders. 
Lieutenant Detective Luis A. Cruz grew up in Roxbury and Mission Hill, graduated from Jamaica Plain High School in 1983, and went on to graduate from Northeastern University and Suffolk Law School. Growing up in Mission Hill, Cruz said drugs were a major problem, but unlike most people, it affected him in a positive way. “I felt that I could make a difference in my community by becoming a police officer in my neighborhood,” Cruz said. However, financial struggles also played a role. “The main reason I became a police officer was to pay off my tuition,” he said. 
Marquis Otero, 19 years old, spent seventeen years living in Dorchester. Otero said he has not felt affected by crime in his neighborhood. “Growing up there was always crime in Dorchester, but it was never once a hindrance to my everyday life,” he said. He believes crime in Dorchester doesn’t affect how he acts in his neighborhood and that he doesn’t believe it is dangerous despite the crime rate. 
Jahai Still-Brodie, 16 years old, has lived in the Roxbury/Dorchester area for the last twelve years. He described the impact that crime has had on his life. “I can't walk certain ways home at night because of the crime that happens. During the summer time, I don't go out a lot around my house. I usually go to a different neighborhood.” Like Otero, Still-Brodie said crime doesn’t affect the way he acts in Dorchester. He hasn’t been physically harmed, but has been stopped by gang members mistaking him for being part of a rival gang.
For Cruz, Otero and Still-Brodie, all are aware of the crime in Dorchester and although they have never been physically harmed, they have all had moments that have rattled them in one way or another. Even if people don’t show it, confrontations like the one Still-Brodie has been in can stay with a person and affect them mentally. Crime doesn’t always affect someone physically, but also mentally and emotionally. That is the part that isn’t seen as much and can impact a person the most. 


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AFH ART//SAMANTHA LI
From Downtown Crossing to the Massachusetts State House, these common Boston destinations are so overrated. Instead, beat the tourist crowds and visit these hidden gems recommended by a local Bostonian. Save yourself some time and money as these are all free to enjoy and easily accessible via the MBTA.

The Berlin Wall
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the German government has donated a handful of segments of the wall to different cities throughout the world. Lucky for us, Boston has two of them. One is in the JFK Library, but if you are not fond of the idea of paying the hefty admissions ticket of $10, the second location might be more appealing. The public garden, free to enjoy, offers a brief glance at history that left the world quaking.
How to get there: 1 Education Street, Cambridge, 02141
MBTA: Green line at Science Park Station

Graffiti Alley
Often looked down upon as a taboo form of art, the urban “Graffiti Alley” is nestled between a bar and a retail space in Central Square. When walking through this alley, it definitely turns heads. Nicknamed “Kaleidoscope Alley,” transparent colored glass from above refracts light that displays on the pavement below, complementing the wall graffiti of local artists. 
How to get there: The intersection of Massachusetts Avenue and Pearl Street
MBTA: Red line at Central Station

Piers Park 
One cannot fully appreciate the beauty of something unless they step back and admire the masterpiece. At Piers Park, you can view our ravishing city from across the Boston Harbor. Stand on fresh grass as you gaze at our city that gently dips into the horizon, causing a slight reflection. The sight is unlike any other.
How to get there: 95 Marginal Street, Boston, MA 02128
MBTA: Blue line at Maverick Station


Highland Park
Resembling a Disney castle, this tower rests upon a hill in the middle of Roxbury -- a place you would least expect to find it. Hidden amidst thick foliage, the park itself is a hidden gem, perfect for sitting and enjoying a nice book. It is so hidden, in fact, that it is not even listed on Google Maps. Satisfy your inner child and visit this medieval-styled architecture.
Where: From the intersection of Columbus Ave. and Cedar St., turn up the hill at Fort Ave. 
MBTA: Orange line at Roxbury Crossing Station

Norman B. Leventhal Park
Within the Financial District is a relatively small park that provides a tranquil setting enjoyed by young teens and corporate professionals alike. This quaint setting is perfect to soak in the rays or stop and smell the roses. It provides a nice escape, while still in the proximity of the bijou shops nearby.
Where: 50 Federal Street, Boston, MA 02110
MBTA: Orange or red line at Downtown Crossing Station


Boston Anthenæm
This hidden gem is often overshadowed by its more extravagant counterparts such as the Boston Public Library in Copley. Resembling a Harry Potter platform with 10½ numbering on the bright red welcoming doors, the inside of the library is magnificent. The architecture mirrors that of a chateau, with grand pillars and bookshelves that reach two stories high. Although a large portion of the library is available to the public, other wings remain only accessible to paying members. This experience definitely provides insight on how the more affluent class lives.
Where: 10 ½ Beacon St, Boston, MA 02108
MBTA: Orange or red line at Downtown Crossing Station

Rooftop Garden
Quietly hidden from street view lies an oasis above the concrete jungle. This rooftop garden sits nearly five stories high, offering views of the bustling city below for a great escape from the stress that accompanies the city life. At such an elevated height, this garden gives an unobstructed view of the the scenic skyline while basking in the flora of the garden. 
Where: 90 Broadway, Cambridge, MA 02142. The garden is on the top floor of the parking garage.
MBTA: Red line at Kendall/MIT Station

Skinniest House in New England
Built out of spite by a brother who wished to block his sibling’s view, the ‘Skinny House’ is narrow yet has a grand presence. Settled between two brick colonial style houses, this pale green house is sure to stand out. Along the Freedom Trail, it marks a historical pinpoint on the colonial setting that once engulfed this city.
Where: 44 Hull Street, Boston, MA 02113
MBTA: Green line or orange line at North Station 

Kelleher Rose Garden 
Those fond of the intrinsic beauty of nature will surely enjoy this hidden gem. This garden is the epitome of sweet desire, which explains why many newlyweds choose to join in matrimony amidst the fragrant aroma of the budding roses. Despite many paying a hefty price tag to hold this as their wedding venue, it is free to visit for passersby. 
Where: 73 Park Street, Boston, MA 02215
MBTA: Green line at Northeastern Station


Madonna Queen of the Universe Shrine
Come for the statue; stay for the view. The journey itself is half the fun as you trek up some stairs nestled between thick foliage from the trees along the side. As you walk up, the roar of an airplane’s turbine signify its departure or arrival, adding excitement. Up at the Shrine, a 180 degree view lays atop the hill as the treat for your journey including the Logan International Airport and the view of Boston. As I look upon the airport below, it makes me ponder what else lies out there, beyond this city we call home.
Where: 120-150 Orient Ave., Boston, MA 02128
MBTA: Blue line at Orient Heights Station 
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AFH PHOTO//AIJANAH SANFORD
Every time I sit on the sleek seats of the 28 bus that heads towards Ruggles Station, I pass the Northeastern University dining hall. With its spotless windows and seemingly comfortable red furniture, the dining hall at any given time is either a bustle of smiling faces or a small coalition of concentrated ones.  
Northeastern reflects a level of prestigiousness that makes it distinct from other colleges and universities. With a 28 percent admissions rate coupled with rigorous academics and a “diverse” campus, it is among the more selective universities in the country. However, walking across the street presents a different picture. 
When you walk across the street, you come across a housing development made entirely of bricks, piled up on top of each other like Legos. The very presence of these apartments are inherently paradoxical to the pristine image Northeastern projects. Here, the truth becomes clear—24.6 percent of the young people who live in the neighborhood of Roxbury live in poverty according to research done by the Boston Redevelopment Authority in March of 2014. The location of Northeastern University also presents a problem. To any person with a WiFi connection: If you look up Northeastern, the school’s website states that NU is located simply in Boston, not Roxbury. 
When you put a microscope on NU and Roxbury,  an insidious truth about where we live comes to light. These two places are near each other, but might as well be universes apart.
The looming question is: How did we get here?
I spoke with Marisa Luz, Campus Engagement Coordinator for Northeastern Crossing. Northeastern Crossing is an organization that specializes in curating relationships between Northeastern University and the neighborhood of Roxbury. A native of Roxbury, she described the neighborhood she once grew up in as “a very vibrant community.”
A graduate of Northeastern, she described her alma mater as a place that was very active in the community and afforded her a set of experiences that she still carries with her to this day. When asked about how the expansion of Northeastern has affected the local community, she addressed the fact that some people might feel encroached by the expansion of the university. She told me that the big beautiful campus that Northeastern has become known for wasn't always like this. She said that when she attended Northeastern 20 years ago, it was a commuter school, and they only had a few buildings while the rest of the land was made up of parking lots.
I went to do more research on this subject, and I found a disturbing trend. According to Northeastern’s own college catalogs, tuition in 1985 was $11,538.50. Considering that there were a myriad of scholarships available (115), a Northeastern education was something a middle class person could afford. However, by 2005, tuition shot up to an expensive $39,902. The scholarships that they offered in 1985 practically disappeared—by 2005, only five scholarships were  available, four of which were merit-based. 
For a lot of people that live in Boston, a Northeastern education is practically out of reach. That sentiment is especially true for the people of Roxbury. Even though Northeastern Crossing has programs such as Afro Flow Yoga and regular meetings addressing the community's concerns about the university, how much does impact does it really have on the community? It's of my opinion that it doesn't bridge the divide that much because even though the community voices its concern about the university expanding, these expensive structures end up being built anyway. Northeastern is prioritizing the wrong things. They are much more concerned with their college rankings than improving the quality of the education that's being offered. This comes at a hefty price: they are trying to become prestigious while isolating people who could really benefit from their education. The ironic thing is Northeastern created the problem that it is hoping to solve with Northeastern Crossing.


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AFH ART//MICHAEL GUADARRAMA
The year was 1964 when over 73 million Americans tuned in to The Ed Sullivan Show one fateful evening. John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr and George Harrison took the stage that night and proceeded to change the world of music. 50 years later, My Chemical Romance came out with Welcome to the Black Parade, an icon of its era. Both, despite having wildly different sounds, are considered rock ‘n’ roll classics. Rock has seen more change than any other genre since its conception in the late ’50s—from suits and ties to skinny jeans and eyeliner, things have gotten pretty odd for the voice of a generation.
’60s
Although rock was born in the late ’50s, the genre found its soul in the 1960s. The melodic bliss of songs such as “Here Comes the Sun” and “I’m a Believer” provided a strong start to an era of musical expression like the world had never known before. 
’70s
Contrasting the soft sound of the ’60s, the ’70s gave way to one of the loudest bands of all time—Queen.  Their biggest song, “Bohemian Rhapsody,” spans several distinct sections: an intro, a ballad, an opera, a heavy rock segment and finally a reflective conclusion. The flamboyance of “Bohemian Rhapsody” defined the ’70s and pop culture as a whole. Queen is well known for shaking up the rock genre and laying the groundwork for glam rock and the sound of bands to come.
’80s
Three words. Don’t. Stop. Believing.
 A fitting follow up to the unique sound of the ’70s, the ’80s hit the ground running with such hits as Journey’s “Don’t Stop Believin’,” possibly the catchiest song of all time, and “Livin’ On A Prayer,” Bon Jovi’s ballad about a hard life worth living.  The decade provided a bridge between the different sounds of the ’70s and ’90s while still forging its own way.
’90s
The ’90s gave birth to many popular rock bands such as Blink-182, Weezer and possibly the greatest band of our generation, Green Day. With such classics as “Basket Case” and “When I Come Around,” Dookie is exemplary of pop-punk greatness.
Another large rock movement of the ’90s was grunge. Headed by Nirvana, the grunge movement provided a bridge between hard rock and post-punk rock subgenres. Nirvana’s best known song, “Smells Like Teen Spirit,” is the epitome of this trend and the ’90s as a whole.
’00s
The new millennium led to a serious 21st century breakdown, as the world seemed to become a darker place than it had ever been. Green Day’s American Idiot preached about life in a post-9/11 society, where paranoia runs rampant and the nation is controlled by the media. The third track on the album, “Holiday,” represents this best, referencing the war in the Middle East and the aggressiveness of the Bush administration. New bands heavily influenced by the sound of the 90’s were able to forge their own voice. One such band is the late, great My Chemical Romance. Gerard Way’s deep lyrics about emotional pain and neglect rang true with many young people at the time, and MCR became a heavy influencer of the early 2000s “emo” scene. The music of this era reflected the unrest of the youth struggling to find their way in a world where everything isn’t meant to be OK.
’10s
With the splitting of MCR in 2013 and the departure of all but one of Panic! at the Disco’s original members, the golden days of 2000’s rock had officially ended. Fortunately, 2013 also saw the reunion of Fall Out Boy and the release of Save Rock and Roll. The album definitely lives up to its name, despite a very different in sound. “We’re at a time where… you could do two things,” said Pete Wentz, the band’s bassist, in a recent interview on “The Woody Show.” “You can really pander to people and have a bunch of Swedish guys write your songs—and there's a bunch of songs like that I really dig—or you could go and put put out some pretty authentic stuff.”
You can either write the same song over and over, or you can make something new and meaningful. This really symbolizes not only Fall Out Boy’s growth from Evening Out With Your Girlfriend to Mania, but rock’s evolution as a whole.
As a genre rock has survived by changing, adapting to the status quo and then twisting it to form something unique. People from all walks of life have changed it to say what they need to say and make something beautiful. To quote a personal favorite, “Rock ‘n’ roll ain’t noise pollution, rock and roll will never die.”


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